How does a macular hole form?
Your eye is filled with a gel-like substance called vitreous, which lies in front of the macula. As you age, the vitreous gel shrinks and pulls away from the macula, usually with no negative effect on your sight. In some cases, the gel sticks to the macula and is unable to pull away. As a result, the macular tissue stretches. After several weeks or months the macular tears, forming a hole.
What are they symptoms of macular hole?
In the early stages of hole formation, your central vision becomes blurred and distorted. If the hole progresses, a blind spot develops in your central vision and impairs the ability to see at both distant and close range.
It is important to note that if the macula is damaged, you will note lose your vision entirely. You will still have peripheral, or side vision.
How is the macular hole treated?
Vitrectomy surgery is the most effective treatment to repair a macular hole and possibly improve vision. The surgery involves using tiny instruments to remove the virtrous gel that is pulling on the macula. The eye is then filled with a special gas bubble to help flatten the macular hole and hold it in place while it heals.